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KEY 



to 
Durus al-lughat al-'arabiyyah li ghair al - natiqina biha 

Part I 








Jjfy&A\ 



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and by kind permission of Shaykh Dr. V. Abdur Raheem 



FOREWORD 



The need for a key in English and other languages 
to my book Durus al-lughat al-'arabiyyah has long 
been felt. Such a key in English is now a reality 
al-hamdu HUah. 

Each lesson is dealt with in three sections. In the 
first section all the grammatical rules occuring in 
the lesson are explained. The second section gives 
a translation of the questions contained in the 
Exercise Section. The third section contains the 
vocabulary. 

It is hoped that this key will greatly help those 
readers who wish to learn Arabic by themselves. 

I will be glad to receive any suggestions from the 
readers, and to answer their queries. Suggestions 
and queries may be addressed to me c/o Islamic 
Foundation Trust, 78, Perambur High Road, 
Chennai - 600 012. 

The Author 
Dr. V.Abdur Raheem 



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Explanation of certain Grammatical Terms & 

Symbols 

1 . Fathah is the vowel sign (— ) denoting "a". 

2. Kasrah is the vowel sign (— ) denoting "i". 

3. Dammah is the vowel sign (— ) denoting "u". 

4. Sukun is the sign ($-) denoting absence of a 
vowel. 

5. Shaddah is the sign (— ) denoting doubling of 
the letter. 

"a" is long "a" as in father. 

"T" is long "i" as in machine. 

"u" is long "u' as in rule. 



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Lesson l 



In this lesson we learn the following things: 

What is this? ? lJu U 

This is a book. , ^^ ( j£ 

Is this a house? 9 £-_, j jj* f 

Yes, this is a house. . £^Jj' | jj* L _; 

No, this is a mosque. . !b*JLj, IJu t ^ 

Who is this? 9 |j& ^ 

^'Note: 

1. 1-^* is pronounced lili, but it is written without the first alif. 

2. Arabic has no word corresponding to the English "is", i.e. Arabic has no copula. 

3. There is no word in Arabic corresponding to "a" in English as in "this is a book". 
The n-sound at the end of the Arabic noun (kitdbu-n, baitu-n, masjidu-n) is the 
Arabic indefinite article corresponding to the English "a"/ "an". This n-sound is 
called tan win. 

4. The particle I placed at the beginning of a statement turns it into a question, e.g. 
This is a house. m ^J^ j j^ 



Is this a house? 9 !*- 



i* 0. 



Lul 



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1U Vocabulary 



cl^j house 

~b^w» mosque 

^4 door 

^li^ book 

(%-i5 pen 



7~\zL* key 

*w^>^ writing table 

jij^ bed 

^gfy chair 

j»-^j star 

^y^-^ shirt 
doctor 



^j boy 

^JLU student 

J-^-j man 

^pru merchant 

e-JS^ dog 

I23 cat 

jU> donkey 

0U2>- horse 

J-^*r camel 

di^ rooster 

^ 2 x / 

^j-^ teacher 

Jj^^f kerchief 



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I Lesson 2 



In this lesson, we learn the use ofdUi meaning "that", and j meaning "and", e.g. 

This is a house and that is a mosque. ~b*^w» dlbj co-j IJ-^ 

'tf'Note: 

1 . dlta is pronounced di|li but it is written without the alif. 

2. The word j is written close to the following word. 



fkO Vocabulary 



f\j*[ imam ^r^ sugar 

• x *« xf 

r^>- stone j-y milk 



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Lesson 3 



In this lesson we learn the use of the Arabic definite article «al» which corresponds to 
the English the" When the definite article «al» is prefixed to a noun naturally the 

indefinite article (-n) is dropped, e.g 

^: * ^ 

baitu-n ^ al-baitu 

Arabic has 28 letters Of these 14 are called Solar Letters, and the other 14 are called 
Lunar Letters In the articulation of the Solar Letters the tip or the blade of the tongue 

is involved as in t, n, r, s, etc. The tip or the blade of the tongue does not play any 
part in the articulation of the Lunar Letters as in b, w, m, k, etc. 
When «al» is prefixed to a noun beginning with a Solar Letter the «1» of «al» is 
assimilated to the Solar Letter; e.g. al-shams (the sun) is pronounced ash-sharnsu. No 



change takes place in writing ( U ^J^\ ). The assimilation is indicated by the 

shaddah on the first letter of the noun. 

No such assimilation takes place with the Lunar Letters, e.g. al-qamaru (the moon) is 

pronounced al-qamaru ( J*Ju\ ). 

Here are some more examples of the assimilation of the «1» of «al» to the Solar 
Letters: 

■ al-najmu becomes an-najmu 

■ al-rajulu becomes ar-rajulu 

■ al-diku becomes ad-diku 

■ al-samaku becomes as-samaku 

See the table of Lunar and Solar Letters (page 19 of the Arabic book). 
Note that the «a» of «al» is pronounced only when it is not preceded by another word. 
If it is preceded by a word it is dropped in pronunciation, though it remains in writing, 
e.g. al-baitu. Here the «a» is pronounced, but if it is preceded by «wa» meaning 
Cw and" the «a» is dropped and the phrase is pronounced wa l-haitu not wa al-baitu. 
To indicate this omission in pronunciation this sign « «* » is placed above the hamzah: 

The initial vowel (a, i, or u) which is omitted when preceded by a word is called 
hamazatu l-wasl. 

to 

The door is open. . -r- jiJla ^-jLji 

The pen is broken. . jj^S^ jJLSil 



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-"'Note: 

We have learnt that the tanwin is the indefinite article, and it is to be translated as 



«a», e. 



.g.cu-u a house. This does not apply to adjectives like r yj^ "open", and 



jj^ck^ "broken". 



l -! Vocabulary 












rich 


X 




poor 


Ji> 


tall 


X 


1* 


short 


¥ 


cold 


X 


J 


hot 


^ 


sitting 


X 




standing 


1* y 


new 


X 


** ^ 


old 


** 


near 


X 


i* • 


far away 




clean 


X 


1* 


dirtv 




small 


X 


^r 


big 


** „ ° 


light 


X 




heavy 


^1 


paper 




;di 


water 


C^ 1 


apple 






beautiful 


oiriji 


shop 







sweet 


a* ^ 


sick 









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j?< Exercises: 
Ex J: (page 15) 

These words are to be read and written with the correct ending, e.g. , 

Jc^^ masjidun is with tarrwin. 

J^l*^Jl al-masjidu has no tanwin. 

Ex.2: (page 15) 

Fill in the blanks with the words given. 
Ex.3: (page 16) 

Fill in the blanks with suitable words. Note that the first word in the sentence 

should have «al» e.g. 

. °\ .'. * °n I 

. lJ^-» C-^Ji The house is clean, 

Ex.4: (page 17) 

Read and write with the correct ending. 
Ex.5: (page 17) 

Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 
Ex.6: (page 18) 

Match the words in (a) with those in (b) 
Ex.7: (page 20) 

Read and write the words keeping in mind the rules pertaining to Solar and 

Lunar Letters. 



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I Lesson 4 



In this lesson we will learn the use of prepositions. 

1 . Arabic nouns have endings to show their functions in the sentence. The normal 
ending of a noun is «-u » as in 

(The house is new), al-baitu jadid-u-n ^i^ ^^ 

A noun with the normal ending is said to be in the nominative case. In Arabic it is 
called f- j*y>. 

After a preposition this ending changes to: «-i» e.g. 
al-bait-u (the house) <— ^' 

fi l-bait-i (in the house) l i^^' gr? 

bait-u-n (a house) ^^ 

fi bait-i-n (in a house) ^rf ^ 

al-maktab-u (the table) l t ^i>-<JI 

a/a l-maktab-i (on the table) h- 1 ^^ u^ 

A noun preceded by a preposition is said to be in genitive case (in Arabic 

2. In this lesson we also learn the two pronouns: j-* "he, it", and ^ "she, it". 

In Arabic all nouns are either masculine or feminine. 

A masculine noun is referred to by the pronoun y> whether it denotes a human 

being, an animal or a thing, e.g. 

Where is the boy? ?^j^ Ji 1 

He is in the mosque. • : ^-~-^' ^ j^ 



The word ^ has a long «T». But when it is followed by «al» the «!» is shortened 
because in Arabic long vowels are not followed by a consonant which has no 
vowel, (fil ^> fil). 

7 



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Where is the book? ? L>li&l ^Jl 

It is on the table. . ^ixlJl ^1p "y^ 

And a feminine noun is referred to by the pronoun [^ whether it denotes a human 
bcmg. an animal or a thing, e.g. 

Where is Aminah? V ^T '• jl 

( J*. 



J/J ^ 

She is in the house. . CL-JI ^i ^ 

Where is the watch? ? iplLjl ^Jl 

It is on the bed. . j^Ul L J^ [j* 

Most feminine nouns end with a round ta (S) but there are some which do not have 

any ending, 
^Note: 

1. We have learnt that the tanwm is the indefinite article, e.g. cl~j a house. This rule 
does not apply to proper nouns. So ^L>~ is just cc Hamid", not Cfc a Hamid". 

2. Feminine proper nouns have no tanwin, e.g. 4^1 c ^-~^J c S^bli 



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©Vocabulary 



^yj where 

*i^ room 

^LJ-Jl bathroom 

7tlJa-«jt kitchen 

L5^ k 



^ on 

^UJUl sky 
J-Ui3i classroom 



^T Exercises 

Ex.1: Answer the following questions (the answers are to be based on the lesson). 
Ex.2: Read and write with the correct ending. 

Ex.3: At the end of page 23: Read and write with the correct endings. Remember that 
masculine proper nouns end in «-un» 5 and feminine proper nouns end in «-u». 



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i Lesson 4a 



In this part we learn two more prepositions; ^ meaning "from 55 and ^Jl meaning 

x 

to . 

• We also leam two more pronouns: Ul C T 5 and cJl "You 55 . 

Ul "I" is for both masculine and feminine, e.g. 

* $ x * '% 

I am Muhammad. • -*-**>*-* ul 

* X XX 

lam Aminah. . 4i^i Ul 



x f 

But cuJi "you 55 * s on ^y f° r masculine singular. You will leam the feminine and 

plural forms later on. 

x x t xx 

We also leam here two verbs v*«* "he went 55 and r/ "he went out 55 . 

Note the Following: 

Where is Bilal? ? 3^ 0? 

He went to the mosque. . d^L^j\ ^J[ e-^ao 

9 x 

Bilal went to the mosque. . r ^LJt ^ ^% L-~*i 

x x x 

X 

X X 4 

So 4— so means "he went 55 but if it is followed by a noun as the subject, the 
pronoun "he 55 is dropped. 



10 



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' yjl Vocabulary 



^ from. (If it is followed by J I it becomes j*) 

J\ to ^^liiil The Philippines 

ObQ Japan 3l*j~uJl school 

U^ 1 China Jj-Ji market 

-^l India 4jl*UJ| university 

^J^j) headmaster 

^Exercises: 

Ex.l: Answer the following questions (the answers are to be based on the lesson). 
Ex.2: Read and write with the correct ending. 

Ex,3: Read and write. 

Ex.4: Fill in the blanks with suitable propositions. 



11 



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Lesson 5 



/ 0^ 



In this lesson we learn the following: 
1. Bilal's book (kitdbu bil&l-i-n) i]%. L>\k* 

The imam's house {bait-u l-imam-i) Aj^S 

In J^ ^^i the first word is the thing possesed. 

It is called mudaf. The second word J^-j is the possessor. It is called mudaf 

ilaihi. 

^'Note: 

a) that the mudaf takes neither the definite nor the indefinite article. So it is wrong to 

say 0%, V^ or J^ ^lixil . The mudaf is definite by position, and does not 

need the definite article, 

b) the mudaf ilaihi is in the genitive case. It can have tanwin as in the first example or 

J 1 as in the second example. 

Bildl-u-n bait-u Bildl-i-n 

al-imam-u bait-u l-imam-i 

c ) -cj-^ S^ 1 —^ "whose book? 5 '. Note that ^ is not in the genitive case because it is 

indeclinable, i.e. it does not change to indicate its function. There are certain 
indeclinable nouns in Arabic which remain unchanged. 

dj^j^-^i jrr*- 1 ^ l^-^ • Note that ^$^* is in the genitive case because of the 
preposition' l5 1p and ^j-UJl is in the genitive case because it is mudaf ilaihi. 



12 



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2, c^>tJ 6fc under" The noun following cu^J is in the genitive because it is mudaf 

* <•" •do x 

llaihi: ^L^xJl C-^J <, l_^i5\-<JI c^xJ 

3. ^ is a vocative particle. A noun following L» has only one dammah: 



A s f 



ili^i b <. .^Li b c J^ L n ot J^j bete. 



# § 



4. The words (*-**•, and j-j), commence with hamzatu 1-wasl. When preceded by a 
word the initial «i-» is dropped in pronunciation. 

As y y 

lsm-w l-walad-i bildl-u-n, wa $m-u l-bint-i dminat-u 

iAsi-ii l-mudarris-i tabib-u-n wa hn-u I4mam4 tdjir-n-n. 

ama 6/i-h hdmid-i-n? 



13 



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^Exercises: 

Ex.1: Answer the following questions. 

Ex.2: Form possessive phrase with the help of the two words. 

Ex.3: Read and write with the correct ending. Note that the mudaf has «-u» ending, 

and the mudaf ilaiM has «-i» ending with or without tanwin. If the mudaf is 

preceded by a proposition it has «-i» ending. 
Ex.4: Read. 

Ex.5: Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 
Ex.6: Correct the following. 
Ex.7: R^ad the following with the correct ending. 

Note that the noun after L» has no nunation, but only one dammah, e.g. 

shaikh-u-n/ yd shaikh-u. 
Ex.8: Make questions on the pattern of the example with the help of the pictures. 

Ex.9: Read the following keeping in mind the rules regarding the hamzatu 1-wasl. 

©Vocabulary 



<J T"J ^ e messenger 

*m\ paternal uncle 

£> jLtil street 

VtS3l theKa'bah 

J U=J 1 maternal uncle 

Jpi* closed, shut 

fy\ name 

S^lpol bag, case 



under, beneath 



ijiy\ son 



,/tf 



SjL^Jt car 

u* here 

liL^ there 

cuiJl daughter, girl 

4-4J^ doctor 



14 



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Lesson 6 



In this lesson we loam: 

x 

1. oAu* which is the feminine of ^. It is pronounced a^A but the alif is omitted in 

wnting. 

x x 

4* . X X %* IX . . X 

This is a hoy and this is a girl. ^-^ ?r^ J ^ J ~^ 

x 

2. Nouns and adjectives are made feminine by adding a «S» at the end. The last, 
letter before this («) takes a fathah (a).... 






1* 

mudarris-n-n => mudarhs-a-t-u-n 

(teacher) (lady teacher) 



Certain nouns have a separate form for feminine e.g. 

9 
,i ** 

^ son <^ daughter 

f * f . 

£l brother ^^ sister 

All nouns in Arabic are either masculine or feminine. Feminine nouns and 

adjectives usually have the S-ending. But there are certain words which do not 

have this ending. Students when learning a new noun must learn its gender also. 
Double members of the body are usually feminine while single members are 
masculine, e.g.. 
Feminine Masculine 

X hand ^j head 

Ox 
** c 

J^rj leg ^ nose 

•^p eye p- 3 mouth 

Oil car ^j face 
3. J is a preposition meaning "belongs to, for" e.g., 

/ X X 

This belongs to Bilal and that belongs to Hamid. ^^4 ^} J <• U^M. ^ 

^ X 

15 



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Praise belongs to Allah. *4 -U>Jl 

Note that the word ^ becomes ^ii fr//a/z-z (belonging to Allah) by just dropping 
the alif. No lam need be added to the word. 

j^l means "whose" or "belonging to whom" e.g., 

Whose is this ? Whom does this belong to? 
Whose is the book? 

Ox x ° I i 

Note that j-* becomes ^ when followed by J> 

A y 

a* 

4. U^jI means "also", e.g. 
This is beautiful, 
and that is also beautiful. 

5. 

This is very big. 



means "very", e.g. 



**.0 • . x 

**, x , 0* x i » . x 



. iJbr 



Ijjfc 



16 



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& Exercises 

Ex.1: Read and write. 
Ex.2: Answer the question. 

Ex.3: Fill in the blanks in the left column with the same predicate as in the sentences 
in the right column after turning them into feminine. 

Ex»4: Correct 'the following. 

Ex.5: Read the following with the correct ending. 



ffl Vocabulary 








01 i3w»Jl 


iron (for ironing) 


'Jh\ 


nose 




cow 


r* 


mouth 




bicycle 


'J^\ 


cooking pot (fern.) 




spoon 




ear 




farmer 


£» 


eye 


y* 


mother 


o3l 


hand 


'ji\ 


father 


3^' 


leg 




fridge 




fast 


t£&Jl 


tea 


SJLiUil 


window 


l -r J j*-*^ 1 


west 


t3>il 


east 




coffee 







17 



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Lesson 7 



In this lesson we learn diij which is feminine of ilii "that" e.g., 

This is Bilal and that is Hamid. . !LU- dJiiji j t 3*^ l-i* 

This is Aminah and that is Maryam. . *J^ dill j 4 ai^T Ju 

^Exercises 

Ex.1: Read and. write.. 

Ex.2: Fill in the blanks with ili> or dIL\ 
LLJ Vocabulary 



<5^M she-camel 

*Wl duck 
^U^^-oJi nurse 






w 



egg 
Jjj^JI mu 'adhdhin 

4^rUrJjt hen 



18 



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Lesson 8 



In this lesson we iearn; 

1. How to say "this book" in Arabic. We have seen that V^f I-& means "this is a 

^ • 

book". Now we learn that L*^ 1 ^ means "this book". This is not a sentence. 
To make it a sentence we must add a predicate e.g. "this book is new" 

s • 

All demonstrative pronouns can be used to make this construction, e.g. 

That man is an engineer. • (j*;^ lT^ ^^ 

This watch is beautiful • ^4^ **^ 5^ 

That nurse is from Japan. . Q$? C^ C^13 dU; 

2. We have seen that the normal ending of a noun is «-u», and it changes to «-i» after 
prepositions, and when the noun is a possessor, e.g. 

The house is beautiful. • Js^*" c ^ Ji 

x 

Bilal is in the house. ■ i^ 1 Jl ^ 

xO x 

This is the key of the house. • i^4^ ^^ ^ 

Nouns ending in long «-a» have no endings. They remain unchanged, e.g., 

This is America. • ^Lr* 1 l±* 

I am from America. • ^^ a? bl 

He is the president of America. • °^y ' j^j J* 

j. 1 jJl^ "behind", f W "in front of. The noun after these have «-i» ending e.g. 
The house is behind the mosque. . ^Wl^i ^^ ^-P' 

y 

Hamid is in front of the teacher. . cTJ^^ f Ul ^^ 

4. (j^b- means "he sat". 

19 



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Where did Muhammad sit? 



He sat in front of the 'teacher. 



l wUj»t^ (f*^ 7 " (ji' 






^Exercises 

Ex.1: Answer the following questions. 

Ex.2: Read and write. 

Ex.3: Change the following sentences as shown in the example: 

This is a book. ^ This book belongs to Muhammad. 

Ex.1: Make questions and answers as shown in the example using the word J^ 

"whose". 
Ex.2: Read the following keeping in mind the rale pertaining to nouns ending in «-a». 

Ex.3: Read and write keeping in mind the rule pertaining to lJ^ and f\-*\. 



QVocabulary 



Lxjj^i America 

Jl*- 4 closed 

Jl^l Iraq 

• 00/ 

j*~ij** Switzerland 



knife 
LjUjI Germany 

/«/ 

jiiS^i England 
^ s LzsL**j\ hospital 



Note that the final iS which is pronounced alif has no dots. So <J 
is ft and | ' is 'a/a. 



'j* 



20 



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Lesson 9 



Part A 



In this lesson we learn: 
1 . The adjective in Arabic. The adjective in Arabic follows the noun it qualifies, i.e. 

unlike in English it comes after the noun, e.g. 



** 9 s ** 9*> 



A new house. ^i^ 

In Arabic the adjective is called na 7 (C*ju), and the noun it qualifies is called 

man Tit (Oj-*jl*). The adjective is in agreement with the noun in the following 

matters: 

a) Gender. The adjective of a masculine noun is masculine, and that of a feminine 
noun is feminine, e.g. 

a small boy a small girl 

a new book a new car 

b) Being definite or indefinite. If the noun is definite the adjective is also definite. 
And if the noun is indefinite so also is the adjective, e.g. 

Bilal is a new teacher. ^i^ u»J^ ^^ 

The new teacher is in the class. . J-Uiii y^ ^-^ <j*j -^ 

c) Case. The adjective is in the same case as the noun, e.g. 

This is a new house, (bait-u-n jadid-u-n) . ~^>^ cu-j 1J-* 

I am in a new house, ifi bait-i-n jadid-i-ri) . ^^ C~rf l$? bi 

The new house is beautiful, {al-bait-u l-jadid-u) . J^^ ^^^J* C~j\ 

Who is in the new house? (fi l-bait-i l-jadid-i) ? ^^ ! ^^ l5? l/* 
2. Adjectives ending in «-an» have no tanwin, e.g. 



21 



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0*>Co kasldn-u (lazy) 

Ol^y>r jau 'anii (hungry) 

Ou^tP "atshan-u (thirsty) 

Ju^kP ghadbdn-u (angry) 

l)%» mal'$n-\i (full) 

^T Exercises 

Ex.1 : Read and write. 

Ex.2: Fill in he blanks with suitable adjectives. 

Ex.3: Fill in the blanks with nouns suitable to the adjectives. 

Ex.4: Read keeping in mind the rule pertaining to adjectives ending in «-an». 

01 Vocabulary . 



i$S"UJI fruit 

jjjCsl*]! sparrow 

J)U\ bird 

j» 

^yo\ Arabic 

* s & 

S^JJi language 

J4~* easy 

-Lgi^-* hardworking 

^-^ famous 



SujX^I 


English (language) 


** Ox 


difficult 




city 




Cairo 


#' 


today 


ikj 


why 


L/£ii 


cup 



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Part 6 

In this part we learn: 

1 . Adjective qualifying a definite noun, e.g. 

Where is the new teacher? s . Oj Jj*ji ^j-^ 1 ji' 

2. Relative pronoun <^-X If it refers to a human being it is to be translated "who", 
and if it refers to an animal or a thing "which", e.g. 

The man who went out of the mosque just now is a famous merchant. 

The house which is in front of the mosque belongs to the imam. 

3. Note that when J is used with a noun having J I, the alif of J I is omitted: 

4 e Jup "with". The noun following it has «-i» ending e.g. 

The teacher is with the headmaster. . j^^' -^ e/'j*-^ 1 

^T Exercises 

Ex.1: Read and write. 

Ex.2: Fill in the blanks with the adjective given in brackets. Note that if the noun has 

l)I the adjective should also have J I. 

Ex.3: Read and write. 



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i LI Vocabulary 








library . 


hy lii I secondary school 


0^1 


now, just now 


jijyl minister 


iiii 


there 


^^- sharp 




clinic, small hospital 


(Jj-^JI market 




fan 


4^^J * Indonesia 


^r£jl 


Kuwait 


£- jLtJi street 



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i Lesson 1 



iiAir 



In tihie lesson we leam: 

1. The possessive pronouns: iJ , o ; li , c£ : 

kitdb-u-ka (your book). Here "your" is for masculine singular. 
latab-u-hu (his book) ^« 

hiiab-u-ha (her book) 4 ^ 

JhYdd4 for Mtdb-u4 (my book) <^^f 

These pronouns are not full-fledged words. They are like suffixes attached to the 

nouns. 

2. As we have seen "y° ur book 9 ' is di>^ and "his book" is ^^. 

+ f * f 

The word for "father" is ^» and for "brother" is £». 

"Your brother" is iij^-l and not ii^-l. 

An extra waw j has to be added between the mudaf and the mudaf ilaihi. In the 

*J$ Mi J$ 

same way "his father" is not ajI but oji». 

Note the following: 

"Muhammad's house" is jU^l» CUj. . 

But "Muhammad's father" is ^*^> jj! . 

And "Muhammad's brother" is -U>*^ j^-1 . 

• f • f 

"My father" and "my brother" have no extra waw, e.g. ^ , ^-> . 

The nouns which take this extra waw when they are mudaf are four words. You 
have learnt two, and you will learn the other two in future 

Jill £& bl. 



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3. We have already learnt that the word -Lip meaning "with" It is also used to 

convey the idea of "to have", e.g. f^ BIlpI "Have you a pen?" (literally, "Is 
there a pen with you?"). 

4. We have already learnt the preposition J meaning ''belonging to"When it is 

attached to the pronouns it takes fatha (3): i^ "belongs to you", d "belongs to 

him", ^ "belongs to her"; but ^ "belongs to me", has kasrah. 
'^Note : 

-r \ ^ means "I have a brother", literally "a brother belongs to me." 

^i ^ means "with" "I have a mouth", literally "a mouth belongs to me." 

It is wrong to say r * (J^f If* Lf^ because -Uf is used with things which are 
separable, and relations and parts of the body are not of this nature. 

5. We have learnt e r — *o "he went". Now r we learn cu-ao "you went" (masculine 

singular) and cuj*o "I went". 

o a x x • 

Did you go to school today? i (*j^ a^jJ^JI ^Jl c^ol 

Yes, I went. • c~*i t (*-*J 

6. We have learnt that feminine proper nouns have no tanwin e.g. ^ » t ^y 
Likewise, masculine proper nouns with s-ending also have no tanwin, e.g. 






7. ( *_^ Means with. To understand the difference between £* and ~^f remember that 
if you say: 

a a 

a * . . * 2 ^> . 

"The teacher is with the headmaster" it means that the teacher has gone to the 
headmaster's office, and he is with him there, but: ^# 

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*v 



doesn't have this restriction. He can be with the headmaster anywhere. 
Note that the noun after £-* has «-i» ending. 

a 

8. 2jt»l^Jlj ^ w at the university 91 , -j is a preposition meaning "at" "m'\ 

Note that oj^lil aJ-uJ \j ^Al*^l ax^L^JI means "Islamic University 

at Madinah Munawwarah". 

9. In Lesson 1 we have learnt that U me ans 'what'. This word is also used 
as a negative particle, so j \ ^^ cXS* L* means 4 I don't have a car', 

4 I have no car' 

.^Exercises 

Ex.1: Answer the following questions. 

Ex.2: Fill in the blanks with the suitable possessive pronouns. 

Ex.3: From five questions and answers on the pattern of the example. 

Ex.4: From five questions and answers on the pattern of the example. 

Ex.5: Attach possessive pronouns to the following nouns as shown in the example. 

Remove the tanwin before attaching the pronoun: 

kitdb-u-n ^> kitdh~ii-ka 

With the possessive pronoun of the first person the case ending "-u" has also to 

be removed: 

kitdb-u-n <=> kitab-1 

Ex.6: Read the following. 
Ex.7: Read the following. 
Ex.8: Read the following. 
Ex.9: Read the example and then read the proper nouns with the correct endings. 

1X1 Vocabulary 



Jl*jj| colleague, class-mate L5 — ^ young man 

7: jj\ husband -^Hj one 

34^ child 



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Lesson 1 1 



This is a revision lesson. It contains only two new words: 

l^i/4^3 and s-^T"' 

1. A-i means 44 in if 5 , e.g. 

° 
Who is in the house? ? £-4p' c3^ Cr* 

There are my father and mother in it • c/^J cj^ ^ 

2. The feminine is 4^ , e.g. 

Who is in the room? ? 9^ J? U* 

ft s 

There is my brother in it • y^ 1 ^ 

3. iL^-1 means "I love, I like 5 ', e.g 

I love my father, my mother, . {J^h y^J u-r* J L5^ L "^" 

my brother and my sister. 1 

The object of a verb is in the accusative case (^ j-^- 4 ), i.e. it takes «-a» endmg. 

But it does not appear in a noun which has the possessive pronoun of the first 
person attached to it Here are some examples of the object without the possessive 
pronoun of the first person: 

(uhibbu liah-a) I love Allah. . ^ 



*. i 



(uhibbu r-rasul-a) I love the Messenger. . oj^y\ 

(uhibbu rasul-a lldhi) I love the Messenger of Allah. . ^Ul uj^j S-f 
(uhibbu l-Iughat-a l-'arbiyyat-a) . **0*^ "^ S-? 



I love Arabic language. 



1 In English the word "and" is used only before the last word, but in Arabic j must 
be used all through. 

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Here we can, learn l^*j "you love" (masculine singular). 

Do you love Allah? ? ^ S 

Do you love your language (lughat-a-ka)! ? ^J^ S 



What do you love? 



j 



Whom do you love? • S-^° if 



& * ' , 



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Lesson 1 2 



In this lesson we learn the following: 
l.We have learnt before C*Jl "you" for masculine singular. Now we learn C 

"you" for feminine singular, e.g. 

Where are you from, Aminah? i 2 ^*^ ^' <j^ Cjt 

The possesive pronoun from CL^I is ^ «-ki», e.g. 

Where is your house, Maryam? *fiy 4 *£^ri d^ 

2. We have already leant that the possessive pronoun from cJl is^, e.g. 
Where is your house, Bilal? ? J^ Lj dA~j jjI 

^^C /O^C xOxC 

We have already learnt 4-^*0 "he went", cu**^ "I went" and cujo "you went". 

Now we can learn eu^so "she went", e.g. 

Where is Aminah? 1 ^f I ^ 

She went to the university. . 4*-*WI ^yi ci~j*o 

If the subject is mentioned the pronoun "she" has to be dropped, e.g. 
Maryam went to school. . ^J^^' lt! (^j^ cujo 

In eu-ao the last letter o has sukun. 

If a verb like this is followed by J I the sukun is changed to kasrah e.g. 

The girl wenLd~LJl C^*i 

3. We have already learnt l£^ "who, which" for masculine singular. Now we learn 
^1 for feminine singular, e.g. 

The girl student who sat in front of the lady teacher is form Germany. 

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a ^ 



The watch which is on the table belongs to the teacher. 
4. We have learnt dijLi^ "your book". Now note cJl di^lx^ l-X* "this is your 

. !f 
book". Here cl*ji has been added for emphasis, This is used in case there is doubt 

or dispute. 
Note also: 

. f-A \^>\^ dlta . lif L5 US lii . ji ££ lii 

^Exercises 

Ex.1: Read and write. 

Ex.2: Change the pronoun in the following sentences to feminine as explained in the 

example. 
Ex.3: Change the subject of the following sentences to feminine as explained in the 

example. 

Ex.4: Fill in the blanks with l£^\ or ^1 



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til Vocabulary 



*-*JI paternal uncle oyxJu)) tree 

4^*J! paternal aunt ~JT* Syria 

JL>J! maternal uncle 4jsLl*j£Ji 3^jX<Jl middle school 

aJL>J| maternal aunt ( j ij ^' inspector 



o^ yl ^yuiv^w^ maternity hospital 

c5-^^ b sir! 



Sliiil young lady 
^3-bt notebook 
Malaysia 



^"^ k madam! 

\ dl) b>- lJ^3 how are you? how do you do? j^t \j\ I am fine 

04-*! pl of ft mother *b I pi of s^' father 

^JJJ pl of ^jj minister ^Uip pl of (%JLp scholar 

£4j*' pl of c5j^ strong <— * W? pl f lJu*-^ weak 

^ after (the noun following ~Uj is in the genitive case) 

AjjjiUl A-jy^t axILJI Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 



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I Lesson 1 3 



Part A 



In this lesson we learn: 

1. The plural of nouns and adjectives. In English adjectives have no plural form. We 

say: "good man" and "good men". But in Arabic even adjectives have plural form. 

In English we have two kinds of plural form: 

(1) Sound, and 

(2) Broken 

In the sound plural the word retains its original form e.g. 
Book <=> books, pen <=> pens. 

In the broken plural the original form of the word is changed to a great extent, e.g. 
Man O men, woman «=> women. 

In Arabic we have these two kinds of plural form: sound and broken. 
• The sound plural is either masculine or feminine. The sound masculine plural has 
«-una» ending, e.g. 

** , .* • o A , o > 

muslim-u-n muslim-una 

* V s * ^ > 2 x / 

mudarris-u-n mudarris-una 

The sound feminine plural has "at-u-n" ending, e.g. 

o 

muslimat-u-n muslimat-u-n 

muhandisat-u-n muhandisat-u-n 

Note that in this plural form the singular has short «a» before the «t» (muslimat-u- 
ri), and the «t» is round (a), where as in the plural the «a» is long, and the «t» is 

open (muslimdt-u-n). 

In pronunciation the only difference between the singular and the plural is the 

shortness and length of «a»: 

muslimat-u-n muslimat-u-n 

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The broken plural. Unlike in English, the broken plural is very widely used in 

Arabic. There are more than twenty patterns of the broken plural. Some are given 

in this lesson. These are: 






r^ 



fj^ 



(IU2U3-U-I1) 1 


najm-u-n ^ 


nujum-u-n 


(Iu2u3-u-n) 


kit&b-u-n 


kutub-u-n 


3^ 

(Ii2a3-u-n) 


jabal-u-n 


3^ 

jibdl-u-n 


(Iu22a3-u-n) 


tdjir-u-n 


jUcJ 

tujjdr-u-n 


^ 

JUil 
(al2a3-u-n) 


qalam-u-n 


aqldm-u-n 



(Iu2a3a'-u) 

This is without tanwin 



zamil-u-n 



zumald '-u 



i^*3\ 



(al2ila -u) 
This is without tanwin 



sadiq-u~n 



a i- ° f 



asdiqd '-u 



(li23at-u-n) 



akh-u~n 



ikhwat-u-n 



The Student is advised to learn the plural form of every new noun and adjective he 
learns. 



1 The numbers 1,2 and 3 refer to the first, second and third letters of the word. 

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2. The plural of >-^> and oJj^ is * y y* (hd uld 7), e.g. 







This is a merchant. 


These are merchants. 






This is a lady teacher. 


These are lady teachers 



Note that * V J* is mostly used with human beings. Its use to refer to non-human 

beings is rare. See lesson 16 to find out what word to be used with non-human 

beings. 

• A A , A 

3. The plural of y* "he" is (%-* "they" (masculine). Unlike the singular j-* the plural 
*~& is used to refer only to human beings, e.g. 

He is a teacher. They are teachers. 

The plural of 4- (his) is *-g- (their),e.g. 

Where is their house? \ (%-$~j <yj 

** s t *• ' A Af 

Their father is a famous merchant . j&£> j^-u «-fry) 

A 

Note that the words for "they" and "their" have the same form (*-*). 

4. We have learnt 4^-J*o "he went". Now "they went" is 'j^ dhahabu. Note that 

there is an alif at the end of the word which is not pronounced. 
Note that the pronoun that we have learnt in this part of the lesson is masculine. 
We will learn the feminine pronoun in Part B of this lesson. 

5. Jcl*> cc some" 9 e.g. 



A A A « ** ^OA^^AoAA o . 



Some of them are teachers, and some (of them) are the engineers. 



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Exercises 

Ex.1: Change the subject of the following sentences to: plural as shown in the 

example. 
Ex.2: Change the underlined word to plural, and reconstruct the sentence. 
Ex.3: Make the following nouns mudaf using first a noun, and then a pronoun as 

shown in the example. 

Note that in nouns ending in alif and hamzah the hamzah is written above a 

waw when followed by a pronoun, but when followed by a noun it remains 

independent, e.g. 



Muhammad's sons 



His sons 



* - ' ii2f 



oJUjI 



Ex.4: Change the subject of the following sentences to plural as shown in the 

example. 
Ex.5: Read and write. 
Ex,6: Write the plural of the following nouns and adjectives. 

Vocabulary 



a 9 

4^3 



plural of L5 ii young man $, UJL- ! pi of *-** [ name 
jljif pi of Jij^ tall D^rj pi of 3^ j man 



v-^^lU pi of l-JUU student 

^-b»r pi of ^ J^r new 

lJl^ guest, pi <>~Jj~0 
-» *> 
hy village 

. / 

J^- field, pi oy&- 
^^•j pi of J^fj class-mate 

jJ^j^* pi wLgj>^>» hardworking 



(j*^ people 

jUo3 pi of j^ 23 short 

£rw- plof^L^ pilgrim 

^bwL^i pi of Jj^U^ friend 



*j*)rt<*)\ 



restaurant, mess 



s-W 1 pi of ^J, son 

7^ old man, learned- 
si 
man, pi r^ 



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• PartB 

In this part wc learn the following: 

1. The plural of ^* "she" is "J* ,e.g. 

They are my brothers, <• Jf^l (►* 

s ' $ a a s 
and they are my sisters. • J&jr^ <J*J 

The plural of Li "her 55 is ^ cc their'. Note that the pronouns for "they" and 
"their" are the same. 

They are my class-mates and this is their house. Cr^ lajb J c lsP^J l>* 

2. We have already learnt that the plural of 5^ is £2 J*, i.e. it is the same for both 
the masculine and the feminine. 

3. We have learnt in Part A that ij^o means "they went" (masculine). "They went' 

(feminine) is <j?*«* {dhahabna), e.g. 

Where are your brothers? 1 dJ^y>-[ j^J 

They went to the university. . 4**bdt u^i 'j?*^ 

And where are your sisters? 1 diJl^l jji 

They went to the library. . 4~>mojI ^i jr&* 



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4. We have already learnt the formation of the sound feminine plural. In the 
pronunciation the «a» before the «t» is lengthened. In writing, in addition to this, 
the "round ta" is changed to "open ta", e.g. 



muslimat-u-n «=> muslimat-u-n 

Note that the following plurals which are irregular: 






bint-un bandt-un 

* ° f "- r '• f 

C-^>-i Cj\y>-\ 

ukht-un akhawdt-u-n 

fatd-u-n fatayat~u~n 



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^Exercises 

Ex.1: Change the subject in the following sentences to plural. Note that adjectives 

like^r *i NJ? t j(k+0 c jllf are the same for masculine and feminine. 

Ex.2: Read and write. 

Ex.3: Change the subject in the following sentences to plural . 

Ex.4: Fill in the blanks using the suitable demonstrative pronoun: 

Note that s-^>* is for both masculine and feminine. 
Ex.5: Fill in the blanks using the suitable personal pronoun: 

Ex.6: Write the plural of the following nouns and adjectives. 



fill Vocabulary 






SSl£L*l lady professor 


iCJ\ 


women (plural 


** 

2j?rjJ wife 




from a different 


a^p aunt (father's sister) 




root) 


oi^Ul women 


** y 


husband 


l^y\ ^Jlsc~~j* maternity hospital 







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8 f 



PartC 

In this part wc learn that the plural of diii and dUj is d^V ji "those". Note that the 

waw (j) in dJj V jl is not pronounced. The words is pronounced uld 'ilea. 

g< Exercises 

Ex.1: Change the subject of the following sentences to plural as shown in the 
example. 

Ex.2: Fill in the blanks using the suitable demonstrative pronoun:(dljV jf dtto , 

d% 

Ex.3: Write the plural of the following nouns. 

Ex.4: Read the following keeping in mind that these broken plural patterns have no 
tanwin. 



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Lesson 1 4 



f 



In this lesson we leam the following: 

Ox *0x 

y ft § # 

1. The plural of cJl "you" (masculine singular) is *2j\ 5 e.g. 

Who are you? \ *jdi ^y* 

The plural of »il "your 5 ' is *j , e.g. 

p ^ ,x , x a S* Ox x o* 

Brothers, where is your house? \ Oij^-i u /*->^ ^1 

2. The plural of L~>! "I" i s ^^j„ Like bl its plural c y>^ refers to both the masculine 



/ ,« 



and feminine, e.g. 

x .* , > > 

We are Muslims (masculine). . 0j-<J r ^w* ^^tJ 

if. x ■ £ £ 

We are Muslims (feminine). . oL!Iw» ^^J 

Ox 

We have learnt that L5 -^ means "my house". Now we learn that "our house" is 

x/ 

Ox 

u~rf bait~u-na, e.g. 



5x > 



Allah is our Lord. . Ljj aUI 

xJ X 

0,^0 

Islam is our faith. . Llj j fjC*^ 

xj[ x x S* ^ ^ 

Muhammad (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) is our Prophet. 

x Ox . Ox ^ 

3. c^jm means "you went" (mas. sing.). ^^^ means "you went" (mas.pl), e.g. 

X J« ^ ^ 

Where did you go 5 my sons? ? ^LjI Ij jU^*o Jl) 

* 9 " '. "ox " 

4. c~*o means "I went". And "we went" is l~*i (dhahabnd). Note that "they 

x Ox ^ 

went" (feminine) is j-?-^ dhahabna. The difference between the two is that in 

" <5x C "ox ' 

c j-H*-s the final «a» is short, and in Lljo it is long. 

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* " 3 ' - T 

5. We have seen that feminine proper nouns have no tanwin, e.g. ^y» ^» 

* '* > / 
Now we learn that non-Arabic proper nouns also have no tanwin, e.g J&* l ^j j 

The names of most of the prophets are non-Arabic, and therefore, they have no 
tanwin, e.g. 

X • **" 

If however, the non-Arabic proper noun has only three letters, and is masculine, it 

has tanwin, e.g. 

J^ c (George) 77^ c j&j l ^y 

6. We have learnt that mudaf is definite by position. So, when the mudaf has an 
adjective it must be definite, e.g. 

The imam's new house. . -b^L^Ji f^w' ^^ 

Here C*- -j is the mudaf, and it is definite by position. The same applies to the 

mudaf whose mudaf ilaihi is a possessive pronoun, c.g.^-i^^^ ^ "his new 

house". 

Note the following: 

The imam's new house. . -b^L^Ji fb^l cUj 

The new imam's house. . ^~b*Jl f^V ^-^ 

7. l>» "which". It is used as a mudaf, e.g. 

Which house is this? i ^ cUrf c5* 

Which student went out? C^ 1 " ^l ^ 

■ When preceded by a proposition it is in the genitive case, e.g. 

Which country are you from? V cJi -Lb ^1 ^ 



In which class-room did you sit? i CU— b>r J-^23 4^1 ^ 



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■ It can be m the accusative case, e.g. 

Which language do you like? ? L^>J 2tij {c\ 

^Exercises 

Ex. I: Answer the following questions. 

Ex.2: Read and write. 

Ex.3: Use the following nouns with the possessive pronouns as shown in the example. 

Ex.4: Read. 

Ex.5: Read the following nouns keeping in mind the rule pertaining to non-Arabic 

proper nouns. 

iUJVocabulary 



L^j %^j *>0J welcome j°yLj}\ constitution (law) 

m ^> child (feminine) aJIaJI prayer direction 

jl.kxJi airport 2w<^>j>*^Jl lawcourt 

V>J1 faculty, college X>a>- grandson, pi a Jjb- 

L r 42jl Off Faculty of Medicine iiwUJl garden 



9 *^* 



4^J^JI ills Faculty of Engineering ^S)\ Lord 

ajUoi OS Faculty of Commerce C--^ fji Saturday 

huj£j\ Off Faculty of Islamic Law jV^ month 

l^ 1 ^^ Christian, pi c5jU^ L r ^r J the month of Raj ab 

^5^1 Prophet OlijJt Greece 

* ** 1. ^ ° * r 

ji-ul religion Sj^l pi of ^ I 

Aiil oUli May Allah grant him health! 



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1 Lesson 1 5 



In this lesson we leam the following: 
1. The plural of cJl ' you" (feminine singular) is ^1 . 

Who are you 5 sisters? ? u^H ^ dr^ d^ 4 

We are the imam's daughters. . >t^| olj ^J 

2. The plural of p "your" (feminine singular) is j^S" ,e.g. 

Where 1S your house, ladies? ? oCC- U" ^SCxLf ^f 

Our house is near the "mosque. . J^JLlJI ^* 1J J> \_Ixl7 

3. We have learnt cJ*i "you went" (feminine singular). Its plural is^*l, e.g. 
Where did you go, sisters? 9 of^-f b' ^1 ^jf 



0^ 



Where did you go, brothers? ^j^i Ij *^a* ryj 

4.345 means "before", XX means "after". They are always mudaf, and the noun 
following them is in the genitive case. e.g. 
After the lesson ^JX\ & 

Before the prayer ;C^j ( j< 

5.^- j "he returned". 
Has the imam returned from the mosque? ?-uJ^Jl ^ il^ | 1^.' f 

I went to the mosque before the adhan and returned after the salat. 



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^Exercises 

Ex.1: Answer the "following questions. 

Ex.2: Change the subject of the following sentences to feminine. 

Ex.3: Change the possessive pronoun in the following sentences into feminine. 

f * f f 

Ex.4: Fill in the blanks with the suitable personal pronouns ( CJI c ^1 t cJI 
Ex.5: Fill in the blanks with the suitable possessive pronoun (J$ ii t ^ c 2]) 



Ex.6: Fill in the blanks with ul or 



Ex.7: Read and write. 



I Vocabulary 



S^Liil Cairo 

f-^-w**! week 

^jJJt lesson 



5^1 



now 



j u^>- V 1 examination 



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Lesson 1 6 



In this lesson we learn the following: 

1. In Arabic nouns are classified as (1) rational and (2) irrational. They are also 
called intelligent and non-intelligent. Rational nouns are those that refer to human 
beings. Angels, devils, and such beings are also included in this class. Irrational 
nouns refer to things, animals and concepts. 

In the singular there is no difference between these two groups. In plural, however, 
there is a very important difference. Plural of rational nouns are treated as plural, 
so plural words like "they" "these" "those" are used to refer to them. Plural of 
irrational nouns are treated as feminine singular, e.g. 

Rational ( J5£) 

Singular: ■ "J^ J* • *£<&■ v4^ ^ 

Plural: • j^f ft-* • ^^ V^^ * *J* 

Irrational ( JSIp Jj>) 

Singular: . jfr*> J* . ^i^ ^^ 1J ^ 

Plural: • *ji*^ \j} • oJ -^ V^ 5^ 

So regard the plural of irrational nouns as feimnine singular. 
Note: 1. The students went out. . \y*j>- ^U^l 

2. The dogs went out. \ - "'. * Nl<Til 

This is the basic rule. There are exceptions to this rule which you will learn later 
on. 

2. We have learnt some patterns of the broken plural. Here are more: 

(Ia2a3i4-u). ma$jid-u-n masdjid-u 

This pattern has no tanwin. J^^ j)** 

daftar-u-n dafdtir-u 



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i?< Exercises 

Ex.1 : Learn the examples 

Ex.2: Change the subject in the following sentences to plural as shown in the 

example. 
Ex.3: Fill in the blanks with the demonstrative pronouns: 

Ex.4: Fill in the blanks with the demonstrative pronouns: 



CO Vocabulary 



0* 



^jl river J-liiil hotel 

^UlJl sea S^Jljail airplane 



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Lesson 1 7 



This is a continuation of lesson 16. It contains no new constructions. 

Note that the plural of jL^>- is y^~ and also j^ 

^Exercises 

Ex. 1 : Answer the fol lowing questions . 

Ex.2: Change the subject in the following sentences to plural as shown in the 

example. 
Ex.3: Fill in the blanks with suitable predicates. 
Ex.4: Write the plural of the following nouns. 

i ij Vocabulary : 



o jZS\ firm, company jp J AJl y^ director of the company 

^y4rj cheap *Jb^ Japanese 

{ y2^ju\ shirt, pi l)W2-*3 



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Lesson 1 8 



In this lesson we learn the following: 

1. Unlike English, Arabic has three numbers: singular, plural and dual. Dual refers to 
two, and more than two is plural The dual form ends in «-ani», e.g., 

hait-ani bait-u-n 

yad-ani yad-u-n 

■ The dual of I-*-* is OS-Lft and of o^ j s JlJU> ? cg 

x > x x * 

■ The dual of j* and ^J* is L^-^ ,e.g. 

Who are these two boys? ? OljJ^I OlJli .y> 

They are (two) new students. . jIJjJj*- l)13LL? LIj* 

Where are the two sisters? i OL^-yl ^vi 

They are in the room. . Siytil ^ uj*> 

Note that the adjective qualifying a dual noun is also dual. 

2. (%-j "how many". Note that the noun following *-S" is singular and in the 
accusative case. e.g. 

How many books? ? IjIiS"' ^ 

How many cars? ? *jC^ (^ 

Note that a noun with tanwin in the accusative case takes an alif which is not 
pronounced, e.g. 

Cur - ^iir - iJk 



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But a noun ending in the round ta («) does not take this alif, e.g. 

js< Exercises 

Ex.1: Answer the following questions using the dual e.g. 

? lijilp Lis ji^ 

Note that the dual of ^ is Olj^l (not 0U-») . 

Ex.2: Read and write. 

Ex.3: Fill in the blanks with the suitable words, and vocalize it with the correct 

ending. 
Ex.4: Change the subject in the following sentences to dual. 
Ex.5: Read and write the following nouns with the correct ending. 
Ex.6: Write the dual of the following words. 



10 Vocabulary 




aJj^u*]! wheel 


Sjj^^Jl writing board 


-ilxil festival 


Jljjjl riyal 


ajlUI year 


* - n 

L5 ^cJI city district 


oJiLJi window 


4*S^ 1 rak'ah (part of 


oJoL^j\ ruler 


salat) pi c~>te"j 



Note that the second letter «k» has sukun in the singular, and fatha in the plural 



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i Lesson 1 9 



In this lesson we learn the numbers 3 to 10 with a masculine noun following them. 

■ The word for "one" is -^Hj and it. follows the noun as an adjective e.g. 

One book ~^Hj S-'^f 

■ The word for "two' 5 is d\£[ and this also follows the noun as an adjective, e.g. 
te lwo books". C)\£[ Obl^ 

But usually the word OLiH is omitted because the the dual form is enough to 

.-0 

suggest the meaning of 'two \ But 0^j[ is used for emphasis. 

■ Numbers3 to 10 : these numbers are used as mudaf, e.g. 

Three books ^r^ ^^ 

Four houses iPj^ ^*0' 

Five pens ^tal 4^^>- 

Ten men u^-j ^j^i^ 

The noun that denotes the thing numbered is called ma c dud (3jJj*»). 

Note that the ma'dud is plural ; and it is in the genitive case because it is mudaf ilaihi. 
The word denoting the number may be in any case: nominative, genitive or 
accusative, e.g. 

tf J > ss s 

Three students went out. . ^^> <&& t- y^ 

In four houses. . ^jd **0' ^J* 

I saw five men. . o^-j «L**^>J>- vjujl j 

Note: in VU-* j-^j ^ "what is the price of this ?" there is an omission. The word 

omitted is ^L>j or any other word denoting monetary unit. 



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^Exercises 

Ex J: Read and write. 

Ex, 2: Read and write the following sentences. 

Ex.3: Answer each of the following questions using the number given in brackets. 

Ex.4: Count from 3 to 10 using the following words as ma'dud. 

LJi Vocabulary 



4 ' 


all 






thanks 


~<& 


all of them 




&l 


day, pi ^J 




all of you 




^11 


price 


LdT 


all of us 




lJw2-L)I 


half 


jh\ 


country, pi 


1% 


^ 


l/10thofariyal, 




different 






<* 
*ft J* ^ 


Jiilkil 


bus 






i* ^ 

pi of j%j^ old 




of them 




^r»> 


passenger (traveling by a 




(literally, from them) 




bus or plane), pl^u j 




Europe 




Sijlii 


question 



L3 % >L^Pjj Yugoslavia 



S-4*^' pocket 



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Lesson 20 



In this lesson we learn the number from 3 to 10 with feminine ma'dud. We have 
already learnt these numbers with masculine ma'dud, e.g. 

X x J" '** X 

Three sons ^) ^*>^ 

Now if the ma'dud is feminine, the "ta-marbGtah" 0) at the end of the number is omitted 

e.g. 



oLj o^j three daughters 

^S^-l ^jjl four sisters 



$ f J 



ol3lL 



>- five mothers 



six women 



^.Uji aj*)Ij three sons 

* • 

oj^M 4xjj| four sons 

^b I ^-^ five fathers 



rj *i*f six men 



l-j'^U^ 4*^> seven students 
Cj^-j <^Loj eight houses 



ouli? *^» seven lady students 

^-3 jp c!si^ ^S^ rooms 
Note that ^^ has sukun on the last letter. 

^uJ ^ivP ten women J^-j Oj-^ ten 

Note that *y^ has fatha on the (Jfi and j-i-P has sukun. 

1* x0 x^-0 

The feminine of -b-lj is Slv^-lj and of OUjUs 0^, e.g. 



men 



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j^l Exercises 

Ex.1: Read and write. 

Ex.2: Read and write. 

Ex.3: Answer each of the following questions using the number given in brackets. 

Ex.4: Write the numbers appearing in figures in the following sentences in words. 
Ex.5: Count from 3 to 10 using the following nouns as ma'dud, 

; . i Vocabulary 

L-^JjJjl Indonesia OuJp plof5-<Jp word 

^ j& pi of 43^ room 5iit^ magazine, journal 

l/'JJ'* P' °f l/"J^ - ' csson ^^r*- letter (of the alphabet), 

^u*pl plofrt-^ paternal uncle pl^jj>~ 



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Lesson 21 



This is a test lesson. There is no new construction in it. There are about five new 
words. Thev are: 

3J!j which is the same as dlii Oj^ 1 colour, pi dty\ 



a^*j spacious 



w ; e love 



>3 



L^ I Asia V>> we love him 

ir< Exercises 

Ex.1: Answer the following questions. 

Ex.2: Say if these statements are right or wrong. 

Ex.3: Write the names of Asian, African and European countries mentioned in this 

lesson. 



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Lesson 22 



We have learnt several groups of nouns and adjectives which do not have tanwin. 
Most nouns and adjectives have tanwin, Tanwin is omitted in the fbllowing cases: 

a) When the noun or adjective- has J I e.g. ^liSol : ^l^T 

b) When it is mudaf, e.g. J^ ^^ : ^^T 

A • A 1* y A 

y § * s Q * 

c) When it is preceded by L> e.g. ilx~-l b ! ilxL-l 

But there are certain nouns and adjectives which never have tanwin. They are called 

^ a 

diptotes (in Arabic ^J ^j\ ^ P- j^JJl). 

We have learnt in this book the following groups of nouns and adjectives which are 

diptotes: 

y Ay 

A *, . T 

1. Feminine proper nouns e.g. v~!J L ^rf ' 

2. Masculine proper nouns ending in cc ta marbutah" (S) e.g. 3^11*1 c S 

J» x ^ ^ / ^ J 

3. Masculine proper nouns ending in «-an» e.g. Jw^j c OuiP 

4. Adjectives on the pattern of D^ii e.g. J*>b> c 0*>Co 

5. Masculine proper nouns on the pattern of J*$l e.g. jjj» t 

6. Adjectives on the pattern J** I e.g. y^^^ c 5y+>\ 

7. Non-Arabic proper nouns e.g., dlil^b c 0-UJ c *-Jj 

8. The following patterns of broken plural: 



A A 



A y f A y f 



A * A y *■ A y . * A o* 

a) £*>Uil 5 e.g. £^j^ c £4^ c ^ISjJ^I 

y 

A y y A 

Ay A y y A A s A As 

b) ^%^^ e.g. *Luj c *^J c *Lr** 

C) LpLL* ? e.g. (^JlSw* t l3^^3 C wb>rL^w« 

d) I^pu^, e.g. 0^" c r^ c u^ 



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Note that ^Ll^l is originally ^Llisl on the pattern of *^**», but because of the 

assimilation of the two "b" ? s, the form has been slightly changed. 

^Exercises 

Ex.1: Read and write the following words keeping in mind the rule concerning the 

diptote. (A diptote has no tanwm, but has only one dammah, whereas other 

nouns and adjectives have two dammahs.) 

1-1 \ Vocabulary 



y^>-\ red 

(Jjj» blue 

y 

j-sAp-i green 

3 y* I black 

*"> f 

j£^\ yellow 

^j^j 1 white 

J ^5 he said 



3lJju Baghdad 

oJj>r Jeddah 

xx 

uW tea-cup 5 pi Ji^"^ 

aj^3 minute, pi J-^ 3 

x 

Jj3U» pi of Jd^f kerchief 

x xO 

7i~JbL* pi of 7* ^f key 

cJLS she said 



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i Lesson 23 



We have learnt before that a noun is in the genitive ease when it: 

a) is preceded by a preposition, e.g. 

b) is mudaf ilaihi, e.g. 

Please note that a diptote in these two situations takes a fatha instead of a kasrah, i.e. 
the genitive ending in ordinary nouns is «-i», but in diptotes it' is «-a», e.g. 






& Exercises 

Ex.1: Learn the following. 

Ex.2: Read and write the following keeping in mind the rule about the diptote. 

Ex.3: Read and write the following with the correct ending. 

Ex.4: Count from l^to 10 with the following nouns as ma'dud. 

Note that these nouns are diptotes. So they will have fatha instead of kasrah, 



> 



e.g. the plural of -Uu^ is wL>rL^ 

three mosques -brL^ Xj^J 

four hotels cJf^L^ ^jl 

five classmates y^»j a^^>- 

£D Vocabulary 

J j : .;Ja ^ Istanbul ^JJljall TaifCity 

A * ° / 

( ji^L^lj Washington 

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